Missione hierapolis :: news18.11.2020
According to the 2nd-century theologian Irenaeus, Papias had known the Apostle John. The 4th-century church historian Eusebius of Caesarea q. Info Print Cite. Submit Feedback. Thank you for your feedback.
The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree See Article History. Learn More in these related Britannica articles:. Papias died c. Because Papias was from the East, perhaps the Johannine order would have priority,…. Papiaswho was a 2nd-century bishop of Hierapolis, mentions I John and quotes it several times, but he distinguishes between John, the Apostle, and John, the presbyter.
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So it seems a welcome news to hear from Turkey that the state and the provincial administration is increasingly investing into the important site of Hierapolis.
However, what we learn has a certain negative connotation. Italian archaeologists have conducted the Hierapolis excavation for 56 years. Photo: KW. Since 56 years Italian archaeologists from the university of Lecce in southern Italy have excavated Hierapolis in western Turkey, a city that was famous in antiquity for its thermal baths. The excavations are considered as successful.
A website of the project offers many information, there are numerous publications, thesis and sub-projects dedicated to the study of this city. Particularly in the last months the excavation made headlines in the newspapers.
First, the archaeologists announced the discovery of the tomb of the apostle Philipp which had been searched for since long. So, apparently the Italians do not lack in achievements. The typical tourist is not interested in the site of ancient Hierapolis but in taking a warm bath.
However, the mayor of Denizli, the city on whose territory Hierapolis is situated today, was not satisfied with the results. The Italians will assist them due to their long-lasting experience. Professional photo session in the middle of the ruins. During the last two years the Italian excavations have been criticised since some people judged them as advancing too slowly.
A view of the magazine of the Hierapolis museum. The details of these plans have not yet been communicated, so we must wait for valuing them. Though, a certain uneasy feeling should be permitted.
All these things cost more money than excavating and lasts often years or decades. And we may be curious to learn when the team excavating twelve months a year will be able to do the other parts of archaeological work. The impressive monuments of Pompeii are difficult to preserve. However, if the focus will be on excavation and presentation of impressive monuments in order to attract even more tourists, we should keep in mind another deterrent example in Italy: Pompeii.
The city buried by Mt Vesuvius has preserved for posterity ancient life in an incomparable manner.For years any beast or bird that came near reportedly dropped dead amid claims they were killed by the deadly breath of the Greek god of the Underworld, Hades. During ancient Greek and Roman times, people were also said to have been cut down if they dared to approach.
Certainly, in the decades leading to the birth of Christ, it was described by the Greek geographer Strabo as deadly place to step foot in. He wrote: "This space is full of a vapour so misty and dense that one can scarcely see the ground. I threw in sparrows and they immediately breathed their last and fell.
But while this may sound like something straight from the Indiana Jones movies, there seems to be some science behind it all. Among the ruins the archaeologists uncovered a cave with Ionic semi columns. Upon them were inscriptions with dedications to other gods of the underworld - Pluto and Kore.
He claims, pilgrims arriving at the site were given small birds to test the deadly effects of the cave.Go Turkey - The Archaeological Site of Hierapolis
Priests were said to have sacrificed bulls to Pluto while madly hallucinating from the toxic fumes. Professor Hardy Pfanz, from the University of Duisburg-Essen, Germany, said the study detected highly concentrated levels of carbon dioxide.
The study said: "In a grotto below the temple of Pluto, CO2 was found to be at deadly concentrations of up to 91 per cent. We pay for your stories! Do you have a story for The Sun Online news team? Sign in. All Football. Patrick Knox. Comments are subject to our community guidelines, which can be viewed here.Philip and the exceptional finding that he and his team of researchers carried out.
John is the only evangelist who mentions him several times. In the order of calling, he is the fifth after James, John, Andrew and Peter.
In the sixth chapter, when he recounts the miracle of the multiplication of loaves, John says that, before doing this miracle, Jesus turned to Philip and asked him how all those people could be fed, and Philip answered that denarii worth of bread would not be sufficient even to give a piece to each one.
Written information ceases on that day. All the rest comes from Tradition. And, according to Tradition and ancient documents written by the Holy Fathers, we know that Philip carried out his mission in Scizia, in Lydia, and in the last days of his life, in Hierapolis, in Phrygia.
In a letter written to Pope Victor I, Polycrates, who toward the end of the second century was bishop of Ephesus, recalls the important personalities of his Church, among them the Apostles Philip and John. It refers to the dispute about the date of the celebration of Easter. And in that letter, Polycrates, who was patriarch of the Greek Church, claims the nobility of the origins of the Church in Asia, stating that just as the trophies mortal remains of Peter and Paul are in Rome, the tombs of the Apostles Philip and John are in Asia.
Moreover, from that letter we know that Philip spent the last years of his life in Hierapolis, with two of his three daughters, who undoubtedly helped him in his work of evangelization. He died a martyr for his faith, crucified upside down like St. He was buried in Hierapolis. In the ancient necropolis of that city an inscription was found that alludes to a church dedicated to St.
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And in the sixth century, under Pope Pelagius I, it was taken to Rome and buried, next to the Apostle James, in a church built specifically for them. An agreement was stipulated between the Italian and Turkish Republics, which enabled our team of archaeologists to carry out searches in Hierapolis. Professor Verzone was the first director of that mission. He concentrated the excavations on a monument that was already visible in part and known as the church of St.
Philip, and he discovered an extraordinary octagonal church, a genuine masterpiece of Byzantine architecture of the fifth century, with wonderful arches in travertine stone. All this complex of constructions made with so much care and detail made one think that it was a great church of pilgrimage, a very important shrine, and Professor Verzone identified it as the Martyrion, namely the martyrial church of St.
End of AD 117 – Hadrian sends a letter of reply to Hierapolis (#Hadrian1900)
Hence he had several excavations carried out in the area of the main altar, but he never found anything that made one think of a tomb. I myself thought the tomb was in the area of the church, but inwhen I became director of the Italian archaeological mission of Hierapolis, by concession of the Ministry of Culture of Turkey, I changed my opinion. I also carried out research through geo-physical explorations, that is, special explorations of the subsoil, and not obtaining anything, I was convinced we had to look elsewhere, still in the same area but in another direction.
We identified a great processional street that took the pilgrims of the city to the octagonal church, the Martyrion at the top of the hill, the remains of a bridge that enabled pilgrims to go across a valley through which a torrent flowed; we say that at the foot of the hill there were stairs in travertine stone, with wide ascending steps that led to the summit.
At the bottom of the stairs we identified another octagonal building that could not be seen from the surface but only on satellite photos.
We excavated around that building and realized it was a thermal complex. This was an enlightening discovery that made us understand that the whole hill was part of a course of pilgrimage with several stages. Continuing our excavations, we found another flight of steps that led directly to the Martyrion, and on the Square, next to the Martyrion, there was a fountain where pilgrims did their ablutions with water, and near there a small plain, in front of the Martyrion, where there were vestiges of buildings.
Professor Verzone had not dared to carry out an excavation in that area because it was an immense heap of stones. Inwe began to do some cleaning and elements of extreme importance came to light. I thought it was the name of the emperor and so that architrave made it possible to date the martyrial church between the fourth and fifth centuries. Then, little by little we found vestiges of an apse.
Excavating and cleaning the floor, a great church came to light. Whereas the floor of the Martyrion was octagonal, this floor was that of a basilica, with three naves. A stupendous church with marble capitals refined decorations, crosses, friezes, plant branches, stylized palms in the niches and a central pavement with marble tesserae with colored geometrical motifs: all referable to the fifth century, namely, the age of the other church, the Martyrion.
However, at the center of this wonderful construction what enthused and moved us was something disconcerting that left us breathless. In a certain sense, its presence could be justified by the fact that in that area, before Christians built the proto-Byzantine shrine, there was a Roman necropolis.
However, examining its position carefully, we realized that that Roman tomb was at the center of the church. Hence, in the fifth century the church had been built precisely around that pagan Roman tomb, to protect it, because, evidently, that tomb was extremely important.
And immediately we thought that perhaps that could be the tomb where the body of St.Hierapolis, titular, archdiocese, metropolis of the Province of Euphrates, in the Patriarchate of Antioch. The native name, Mabog or Maboug, the Greeks make Bambuke and Seleucus Nicator transforms into Hierapolis or Hieropolis, both forms being found on the coins.
The dove was sacred to this goddess, who is represented under the form of a woman-fish. The temple of Hierapolis was pillaged by Crassus at the time of his expedition against the Parthians. Lucian of Samosata tells us that numerous pilgrims repaired thither twice a year in order to pour water through the opening of an abyss.
Under the Seleucides and the Romans, Hierapolis became a great commercial center, a halting-place for the caravans going from Seleucia to Babylon. As the capital of the province of Commagene, or Euphrates, it became an important military stronghold where the Roman and Byzantine armies were concentrated, once the Persians had crossed the frontier and taken the first line of the defenses. Julian the Apostate stopped here for some days before marching against Sapor. In the city escaped pillage by the troops of Chosroes only by the payment of a heavy fine.
Justinian fortified it, reducing the extent of the ramparts, which, with their numerous towers, also built by this emperor, are still standing. It requires about an hour to make the circuit of them. In the Emperor Romanus Diogenes took the city, thus staying the progress of the Turks.
Lequien Or. Among the best-known may be mentioned Alexanderan ardent advocate of the Nestorian heresy, who died in exile in Egypt ; Philoxenus or Xenaia d. This see must not be confounded with Hierapolis in Arabiaa large number of whose titulars in the fifteenth century are mentioned by Eubel II, Today Membidj is a caza of the sanjak and vilayet of Aleppo in a rich plain. The village is situated twenty miles west of the Euphrates, and contains inhabitants, all Circassians.
The ruins of the city of Hierapolis are thirteen miles north, at Kara-Membidj, where remains of aqueducts and the Byzantine walls of Justinian are still to be seen. Skip to main content Accessibility feedback encyclopedia. Download Share. Click to enlarge. Enjoying this content? Please support our mission!You have been successfully added to the mailing list of Times of India Travel. To complete the subscription process, kindly open your inbox and click on the confirmation link which has been emailed to you.
Thank You for sharing! Your friend will receive the article link on email mentioned. These ancient cities located in southwestern Anatolia have many hot springs. You would be surprised to know that the hot springs have been used as spa since 2nd century BC. Pamukkale houses an archeol Follow us on. Hierapolis was founded as a thermal spa and later became a healing center where patients would come for cure. Today, the site is a tourist attraction mainly because of the main street and gates and their majestic structure.
Moreover, you can also visit a theatre, Plutonium, Nymphaeum monumental fountainNecropolis, baths, and Martyrium. The ruins of Hierapolis lie adjacent to Pamukkale, which is a natural work of wonder in Denizli Province. The whole city is an interesting territory of hot springs and travertines. Travertines are terraces of carbonate minerals deposited by flowing water.
In all there are 17 hot water springs in the area. Some hotels were built in but were later demolished as they used to draw all the hot water in their pools and thus damaging these carbonate terraces.
Also, these terraces are off-limits but tourists can follow the main pathway. Both the sites together make for a spectacular tourist spot. For under 30 TL, you can board a bus provided by Pamukkale, from anywhere on the coast.
With all these fascinating spots scattered around Antalya, perhaps the trickiest part is to decide which one to visit first, no? Heading out for a vacation? Take your travel expert with you - download World Travel Guide. Explore other Travel Guide Apps. Liked this article? Let your friends know about it. Was this helpful? Join Us On Facebook Close. Share your Turkey Trip Experience. Characters Remaining: Be the first one to review. From around the web. Manavgat Waterfalls. Myra Ruins. Konyaalti Beach.
Antalya Marina. Kekova Island.They carried letters of congratulations with them and each received a written answer which would be taken home and proudly reproduced in stone to be displayed in a public space. A letter of thanks from Hadrian to Hierapolis happens to be preserved.
Housed in the garden of the museum of Hierapolis is a slab of white marble bearing copies of two letters of Hadrian. The two letters are separated by a blank space and the letter in question is written on the upper part of the slab.
The devotion that since the time of your forebears you have cultivated and now [confirm] through your decrees, already before […] and for having accomplished exceptional prayers and sacrifices because the paternal power has been transmitted to me. These things thus pleased me, but the crown of gold that you have sent me, I have sent it back to you, feeling satisfied by the honour.
As far as concerns the rights of asylum that were given to your ancestral gods by the kings and emperors and the senate, that have been ratified even by the divine Trajan, I [confirm] them as well. They spoke as ambassadors Julius Myndios, Philo—-]. The day before the [— of the month of —, from —]. The inscription tells us that the congratulatory embassy sent to Hadrian upon his accessions was led by Tiberius Iulius Myndios, a Hierapolitan elite and a considerable benefactor of the city also known through other inscriptions as sacerdos priest of Zeus.
It had been the custom to demand of every new emperor a confirmation of the privileges enjoyed by the communities. The city of Hierapolis was granted the right to asylum shelter attributed to its sanctuaries during the reign of the Hellenistic kings in order to provide a refuge to their subjects during the many wars.
In the case of Hierapolis, the right of asylum was confirmed continuously by the various emperors down to Trajan. Hadrian consented to this tradition and allowed Hierapolis to enjoy this prestigious privilege.
The crown tax was a large sum of money donated by the provinces to victorious Roman generals and later to emperors upon accession. Originally it was a voluntary contribution under the Republic but later it became a mandatory tax under the Empire, collected by every new emperor and also on other occasions, as, for instance, on the adoption of Antoninus Pius.
When Roman rule changed hands every two or three years in the 3rd century AD, wealthy towns felt obliged to ask for a reduction not being able to sustain the cost. Hadrian was not the first emperor to show benevolence toward cities. The Res Gestae Divi Augusti claims Augutus refused 35, pounds of aurum coronarium offered by the towns of Italy after his victory at Actium. In my fifth consulship [28 BC] I remitted 55, lb. Brunt and J. The slab with the two letters were found collapsed near the northern wall of the diazoma of the Roman theatre of Hierapolis where it was thought to be have been displayed publicly.
However, according to recent studies, the inscriptions could be instead part a monumental altar dedicated to Hadrian and the Twelve Gods. Hadrian is believed to have visited Hierapolis in AD during his stay in nearby Laodicea. His visit resulted in the rebuilding of the theatre and the worship of the emperor.
We know from an inscription SEG that a building was dedicated to Zeus Olympios, the Theoi Patrioi ancestral godsHadrian, the imperial family, and the Demos by Tiberius Iulius Myndios on behalf of his wife, Aelia Glykonis, who was the priestess of the Dodekatheon.
This dedication, in addition to the two letters discussed here, appear to belong to the podium of the monumental altar built in honour of the emperor. In addition, a marble head of Hadrian found in front of the theatre in appears to be connected to the altar.