States of matter ppt chemistry20.11.2020
Toggle navigation. Help Preferences Sign up Log in. Featured Presentations. Modern Chemistry Chapter 10 States of Matter Kinetic-Molecular Theory The kinetic-molecular theory of matter is based on the idea that particles of matter are always Unit 1: Chemistry and Matter Ms. Knick HASD. Thermal energy is the energy associated with the Chemistry: The Study of What is matter? What are some examples of matter? Elements Elements are building blocks of matter Christmas Last modified by: Byron K.
Christmas Document presentation format: Custom Other titles. Byron K. The study of the matter, its composition, properties, and the changes it undergoes. Applied Chemistry is the using chemistry to attain certain What is Chemistry? You can name the three states of matter. A natural science. Work - cause a change or move an object. Many types- all can be changed into Definition of Concepts: Matter and Energy. Biochemistry is 'wet chemistry.
Chemistry Unit 1: Chapter 3 Matter - the study of the composition, structure, and properties of matter and the Students can learn this topic easily in few minutes. This presentation is about States of Matter. Chemistry Matter - A basic understanding of chemistry is central to our understanding Terms like burn, oxidize, rust, tarnish, corrode, rot, or ferment are chemical reactions.
A basic understanding of chemistry is central to our understandingThere are three states of matter, solids, liquids and gases. The state of a substance depends on the forces that hold its particles together and their average energy.
We can differentiate the bulk properties of the three states of matter in terms of shape and the volume they occupy:. These macroscopic properties are a direct result of the forces acting between the microscopic particles and the distances that these particles have between them.
They cannot move any closer together and so the solid is incompressible. The particles are held in fixed positions apart from vibrationswhich means that the solid keeps its shape in the macroscopic world unless subject to forces that bend, flatten or otherwise distort the shape.
Solids themselves can vary in properties, some being brittle while others are malleablesome hard while others are soft. These differences can always be explained by studying the underlying structure of the solid and the particles that comprise it. The particles of liquids are close together but they are not in fixed positions. Their vibrations are enough to shake the whole structure apart and the particles can move with respect to one another.
The result of this freedom of motion is that the liquid flows in the macroscopic world and very small force is required to distort its shape. Gravity is enough to pull the liquid towards the earth and a liquid adopts the shape of the bottom of any container.
Where gravity doesn't act, for example in space, the liquid adopts a spherical shape. This indicates that forces act between the particles pulling them together. This interparticular force is also responsible for the surface tension of liquids. The energy of the particles makes them move rapidly and prevents any appreciable forces of attraction acting between the particles.
The spaces between the particles are now very large and the gas is compressible ; the particles can be easily pushed closer together. The particles spread out, where possible, by constant collisions and expand to fill the entire space available.
The gas adopts the shape of any container. If the vibrational energy of the particles is less than the force holding them together, the substance is a solid. As the temperature increases so the vibrations increase until eventually the structure breaks apart. We call this temperature the melting point of the solid. If this temperature is approached from above and a liquid gradually cooled, then this is also the temperature at which the liquid solidifies or freezes. Thus, the definition of melting point is the temperature at which solid and liquid states are in equilibrium i.
At the melting point of ice, both water and ice co-exist in equilibrium with one another. Example: In what state is nitrogen at 56K, if its melting point and boiling points are 63K and 76K respectively?
The temperature would have to be increased to 63K in order for it to liquefy. The same argument cannot be applied to the boiling point, as there are always particles in the body of a liquid that have sufficient energy to escape the forces of attraction within the liquid and escape into the gaseous state.
This happens because the energy of the particles is distributed statistically, with some receiving a lot of energy whereas others receive very little. This distribution of energy is shown by the Maxwell - Boltzmann energy distribution curve. The curve is temperature dependent. In the curve you can see that there are always some particles with high enough energy to overcome the forces of attraction and escape from the rest.
If the particles escaping from a liquid are carried away by currents of air the liquid evaporates. We call a gas that exists below the normal boiling point of a liquid a 'vapour'. The particles of vapour exert a pressure in the same way as any other gas; this is called the vapour pressure.
The boiling point of a liquid is the temperature at which the vapour pressure of the liquid is equal to the atmospheric pressure and bubbles of gas can spontaneously form within the liquid. This clearly depends on the atmospheric pressure at the time. At the boiling point or very slightly above it the gas particles have too much energy to allow forces to pull them back together again.Teachers Pay Teachers is an online marketplace where teachers buy and sell original educational materials.
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States of Matter Power Point - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
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This lesson builds on the previous States of. Physical Science. Add to cart.Toggle navigation. Help Preferences Sign up Log in. View by Category Toggle navigation. Products Sold on our sister site CrystalGraphics. Title: States of Matter Power Point. Latest Highest Rated. When the contestants give their questions really the answerclick anywhere on the screen to see the correct question. Click on the Score box so that you can return to the main game board. Enter the score on the contestants black box.
This will be where the contestants wager their money on the outcome of the last question. It is a good idea to allow your kids to watch the Real Jeopardy before playing for the first time. DO NOT save the game. This will overwrite the program with the scores and data you enter. After you create the answers and questions for the first time, You might save it as a different name ie.
Ch13 review, but keep this file untouched! Enjoy Lets Play!!! Key Concepts Scientific Method Relationships Open ended 2 Graphs Final Scores 11 The application of scientific research to societys needs and problems. Scores 13 Any structure, behavior, or internal process that enables an organism to respond to environmental factors and live to produce offspring. Scores 15 Anything that possesses all the characteristics of life.
Scores 17 A group of organisms that can interbreed. Scores 21 Which of the following is not an appropriate question for science to consider?T, V, constant. Gases consist of large number of identical particles atoms or molecules that are so small that the actual volume of the molecules is negligible in comparison to the empty space between them.
There is no force of attraction between the particles of a gas at ordinary temperature and pressure c. Particles of a gas are always in constant and random motion d. Pressure is exerted by the gas as a result of collision of the particles with the walls of the container e.
Collisions of gas molecules are perfectly elastic f. At any particular time, different particles in the gas have different speeds and hence different kinetic energies g. Average kinetic energy of the gas molecules is directly proportional to the absolute temperature. Compressibility factor Z : It determine extent of devation of real gases from Ideal gas behavior.
Vandor Walls equations:- The constants a and b have positive values and are characteristic of the individual gas. The van der Waals equation of state approaches the ideal gas law. Critical Temperature : Tc The temperature above which a gas cannot be liquefied whatever high pressure may be. Critical Pressure : The minimum pressure required to liquity a gas at its critical temperature.
Super cooled liquids : The liquids which are cooled to a temperature below its freezing point without freezing. Elastic Collision : The collisions in which no loss of K. Vapour pressure : The equilibrium pressure by vapour of liquid in a container at given temperature T. Please send your queries to ncerthelp gmail. Link of our facebook page is given in sidebar. Copyright ncerthelp. T, V, constant Kinetic Molecular theory : a. Average kinetic energy of the gas molecules is directly proportional to the absolute temperature The van der Waals equation of state approaches the ideal gas law Critical Temperature : Tc The temperature above which a gas cannot be liquefied whatever high pressure may be Critical Volume : The volume of 1 mole of gat at Tc, Pc.
Vapour pressure : The equilibrium pressure by vapour of liquid in a container at given temperature T Follow Us On Facebook. Please Share this webpage on facebook, whatsapp, linkdin and twitter. Facebook Twitter whatsapp Linkdin. Business Studies. Political Science.As a young child, I remember staring in wonder at a pot of boiling water. Searching for an explanation for the bubbles that formed, I believed for a time that the motion of the hot water drew air down into the pot, which then bubbled back to the surface.
Little did I know that what was happening was even more magical than I imagined — the bubbles were not air, but actually water in the form of a gas. The different states of matter have long confused people.
States of matter
The ancient Greeks were the first to identify three classes what we now call states of matter based on their observations of water. But these same Greeks, in particular the philosopher Thales — BCEincorrectly suggested that since water could exist as a solidliquidor even a gas under natural conditions, it must be the single principal element in the universe from which all other substances are made.
We now know that water is not the fundamental substance of the universe; in fact, it is not even an element. To understand the different states in which matter can exist, we need to understand something called the Kinetic Molecular Theory of Matter. Kinetic Molecular Theory has many parts, but we will introduce just a few here. One of the basic concepts of the theory states that atoms and molecules possess an energy of motion that we perceive as temperature.
In other words, atoms and molecules are constantly moving, and we measure the energy of these movements as the temperature of the substance. The more energy a substance has, the more molecular movement there will be, and the higher the perceived temperature will be.
An important point that follows this is that the amount of energy that atoms and molecules have and thus the amount of movement influences their interaction with each other. Unlike simple billiard balls, many atoms and molecules are attracted to each other as a result of various intermolecular forces such as hydrogen bondsvan der Waals forcesand others. Atoms and molecules that have relatively small amounts of energy and movement will interact strongly with each other, while those that have relatively high energy will interact only slightly, if even at all, with others.
How does this produce different states of matter? Atoms that have low energy interact strongly and tend to "lock" in place with respect to other atoms. Thus, collectively, these atoms form a hard substance, what we call a solid. Atoms that possess high energy will move past each other freely, flying about a room, and forming what we call a gas. As it turns out, there are several known states of matter ; a few of them are detailed below.
Solids are formed when the attractive forces between individual molecules are greater than the energy causing them to move apart. Individual molecules are locked in position near each other, and cannot move past one another.
The atoms or molecules of solids remain in motion. However, that motion is limited to vibrational energy; individual molecules stay fixed in place and vibrate next to each other. As the temperature of a solid is increased, the amount of vibration increases, but the solid retains its shape and volume because the molecules are locked in place relative to each other.
To view an example of this, click on the animation below which shows the molecular structure of ice crystals. Liquids are formed when the energy usually in the form of heat of a system is increased and the rigid structure of the solid state is broken down.
In liquidsmolecules can move past one another and bump into other molecules; however, they remain relatively close to each other like solids. Often in liquidsintermolecular forces such as the hydrogen bonds shown in the animation below pull molecules together and are quickly broken. As the temperature of a liquid is increased, the amount of movement of individual molecules increases. As a result, liquids can "flow" to take the shape of their container but they cannot be easily compressed because the molecules are already close together.
Thus, liquids have an undefined shape, but a defined volume. In the example animation below, we see that liquid water is made up of molecules that can freely move past one another, yet remain relatively close in distance to each other. Gases are formed when the energy in the system exceeds all of the attractive forces between molecules. Thus gas molecules have little interaction with each other beyond occasionally bumping into one another. In the gas state, molecules move quickly and are free to move in any direction, spreading out long distances.These exhibits the characteristic nature of Flow, Rigidness, etc.
Knowledge for the States of Matter is very Important in the field of Chemistry. Chemical Properties of a substance do not change with the change of its physical state, but their rate of Chemical Reactions Depend upon the Physical States. An Understanding of these States is essential for the students to help them grasp some of the properties that they exhibit in as Nature. So, go ahead and Impress your teachers with these easily customizable Presentations. This Presentation Template is a collection of 32 Slides which contain info styles Slides, Differences Slide, Description styles, Section breaks slide for immediate editing.
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